OPTION CALL PUT VALUATION
Understanding Option pricing and valuation is very necessary before u start trading in this highly profitable segment .
If you just blindly start trading stock options without having at least a basic understanding of stock option valuation and why options behave the way they do, then you're going to be in trouble and possibly lose a great deal of money.
The value of an option is determined by its chance to be exercised with profit on the expiry day. This consists of two parts: the real value and the time value. The real value is the value that is possible to ‘touch’. A call option has a real value if the underlying stock’s price exceeds the option’s strike price. For put options it is the other way around, in that they have real value if the strike price instead exceeds the value of the stock. Conversely the time value is the value of the possibility that good news will occur during the time to maturity in order for an option to have a real value on the expiry day. Time value changes during the maturity period and will always be zero on the expiry day. Options that have a real value are said to be ‘in the money’ and are called plus options by professionals, while options that completely miss real value are ‘out-of-the-money’ and are referred to as minus options. Options where the strike price and stock price corresponds are ‘at-the-money’ and are called pari options.
The value of the option can be estimated with a mathematical formula named Black & Scholes after its inventors. In the formula the price is calculated as a function of the underlying stock value, the strike price, the time to maturity and the level of the risk free interest rate, among others. All terms in the equation can be determined relatively easy except one: the stock’s volatility. The risk measure that is interesting when one deals with options is the so called ‘implied volatility’, which contains the premium that the market has set on the option. Contrary to historical volatility, implied volatility measures the market’s expectations on the future changes in the stock price. This is crucial, as it is when an investor has a different opinion to the general market about the future risk of a stock that it becomes possible to enter and make money from an option, since its premium then will be different than what it ‘should’ be.
There are a large number of strategies that one can use in order to profit from the possibilities of options. Learning the differences and advantages between different options is critical to success, as options can appear superficially similar. It is seldom enough just to look at the option’s premium and the strike price. Real professionals also look at how sensitive the options are for the market climate. By using Black & Scholes’ formula one can derive several important sensitivity measures – commonly mentioned as ‘the Greeks’ since they have been provided with Greek letters – that can clearly tell how an option will react from different market conditions.